Cancer is essentially a ‘malignant’ ‘neoplasia’. It is a neo-plasia (new-growth) that develops from cells and forms a mass that occupies a space within our organs. However, beyond that, it is a malignant neoplasia. In other words, it is an autonomous growth that cannot be controlled or suppressed by the body. Unlike ‘benign’ neoplasms that are well-circumscribed, slow-growing and relatively little damage to the surrounding tissues, cancers (ie malignant tumors) are infiltrative neoplasms that destroy surrounding tissues and can spread (metastasize) to lymph nodes and distant organs through the vessels. Cancers are named according to the cell types in which they arise (and with similarities) and generally by adding the ‘oma’ (ie tumor) suffix to this word. For example, lymph cell cancers such as ‘lymph-oma’, melanocyte (the cell that makes up the pigment that gives the skin its color) and melan-oma for cancers. It is clear that genetic predispositions and environmental factors play a role in the development of cancers; The proportional role of these factors in different cancers and different age groups may vary. Different cancers have very different characteristics and behaviors. For example, while breast and prostate cancers can often be successfully treated with treatment (5-year survival for breast cancers is 90%, for prostate, 10-year is 95%), these rates are unfortunately very low for lung and pancreatic cancers (5-year, 20% and 8%). For the same cancer group, early-stage (that is, has not yet spread much) and low-grade (not yet developed cellular aggressive properties) cancers have a much higher chance of being successfully treated than advanced and high-grade cancers. The organ and region in which cancers develop, and other health and genetic characteristics of the individual are also factors that greatly affect the behavior and curability of cancers. If cancers are caught at the pre-malignant level, the chance of cure is very high. These features of cancers will be discussed in detail in this course.
During this session, basic molecular features of cancer will be discussed and molecular changes that occur during cancer initiation and progression will be covered. Recent developments in basic and translational cancer research will also be briefly evaluated and the implications of these changes in clinical practice will be discussed.
Participants will learn about cancer development mechanisms and what clinical reflections cancer research has today.
Cancer is one of the most important diseases of our lives and is the second most common cause of death after heart attack over the years. Prevention and preventive medicine are more important than treatment. For this purpose, in the first step, it is important to know the causes of cancer and to take preventive measures for our living standards. The determination of carcinogenic agents in the historical process has led to a decrease in the incidence of many cancers. Studies on lifestyles have increased, and active lifestyle recommendations, weight control and nutritional advice have become a part of our lives.
Cancer disease is a more and more common health problem in the world and in our country. It continues to be a serious health problem with its mortality and social-psychological and other problems. The frequency of the disease may vary regionally. Early diagnosis of the disease is extremely important in order to prevent it from being fatal, and the necessary screening programs should be made in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the Guidelines, and a rapid diagnosis should be made.
In which diseases and for what purposes is the Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Imaging and Therapy (NMMIT) department used?
NMMIT is a department in which radioactive materials are used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals (RF) are produced in radiopharmacy laboratories working in accordance with national and international accreditations and cGMP (Current Good Manufacturing Practices) standards.
In NMMIT, RFs are given to the body mostly via vascular access for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. We often call RFs Theranostic, which can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The purpose of NMMIT is to see the distribution of the disease in the body with RFs that do not go to healthy tissues and therefore do not harm. We can see the distribution of the disease with machines (PET: Positron Emission Tomography, SPECT: Single Photon Emission Tomography) that deliver a low dose of RF to the body and see the radiation emitted outside the body from where it goes. These RFs, which we use for the diagnosis of the disease, are quickly excreted from the body and the radiation they give at the place they go does not harm. But if we bind the same substance to a substance that destroys where it goes, this time we will eliminate the disease in that area. The more disease-specific an RF is, the more valuable it is.
In parallel with technological developments, radiology has become a area of great progress in the last decades.
Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and color Doppler ultrasonography methods used in radiology provide important information about early and accurate diagnosis of diseases, as well as follow-up, post-treatment evaluation and even their prognosis (possible course) from time to time.
Switching to a multidetector system in computed tomography enables examinations to be performed in a much shorter time with higher resolution and optimum timing (phase).
Thanks to current techniques in magnetic resonance imaging, with radiology, apart from the usual morphological information, functional data can now be obtained.
In this course, radiological imaging of intraabdominal tumors will be explained with case examples in the light of the most up-to-date methods.
It has been revealed that diseases such as the plague, which caused the loss of many people in the world in the history of humanity, are unafraid because it has been revealed today. A similar disease of our age is cancer, and the most important focus of the medical world of our century has been the treatment of cancer. In the past, removal of the cancer mass with surgery was the only method of treatment. On the other hand, when some types of cancer have spread to many organs at the time of diagnosis, it is not possible to remove the tumor tissue by surgery. Treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy have emerged as an option for the treatment of these diseases. While cancer was diagnosed only by examination in the past, nowadays it is made by imaging methods. X-ray, the first imaging method, was the only imaging method used at the beginning of the century. With the advancement of technology, sophisticated imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance have begun to enter clinical practice. The presence, prevalence, and possible type of tumor tissue have begun to be revealed with these methods. Imaging methods such as PET / CT can reveal the extent of the tumor by revealing the tumor cells when they are just 1 cm. In the last decade, some treatment options, such as immunotherapy, which tries to treat cancer cells by using some properties found in the membrane of the cancer cells or based on the vascularity of cancer, have been defined. Such treatments are still effective in several cancer types and are very expensive treatments. Other imaging methods have begun to emerge that radiologically demonstrate whether this treatment will be effective or not before the treatment begins. Non-surgical tumor treatments have begun to emerge with imaging. With each passing year, radiology continues to fight against cancer, not only in diagnosis but also in treatments.
In addition to the fact that cancer is an increasing health problem, advances in research have been extremely promising. Recently, new drugs such as smart drugs, targeted drugs, and immunotherapy have been applied in the treatment of this disease. And the results are extremely gratifying. Developments inform that the treatment of this disease will be carried further.
Cancer treatment is one of the areas where development and innovation are the most prevalent, thanks to the knowledge and research in recent years. We will learn about innovations in cancer surgery, how to plan personalized treatment, and what are the innovative developments. What are laparoscopic and robotic surgeries, how to perform intra-abdominal surgeries through a single hole in the navel, from performing endoscopic surgery without ever opening the abdomen of the patient, to the evaluation of the intestines by visualizing the path of a capsule swallowed by mouth, we will open our horizons by seeing various methods. What is oncoplastic surgery in breast cancer? We will talk about the effect of preserving body integrity on quality of life and healing by instantly making a new breast to a woman whose breast was removed due to cancer.
Radiation appears in all areas of our lives. Its use for therapeutic purposes constitutes an important treatment for cancer. With the development of chemotherapy agents cancer and the increase of computer technology for years, it has advanced Radiation Oncology, which is a branch of science that uses radiation for treatment. Radiation therapy, in which targeted and normal tissues are protected, is an integral part of cancer treatments.
Nutrition has an important place in the prevention of many types of cancer. At the same time, nutritional management during cancer treatments varies according to the type of cancer, treatment methods, personal characteristics and should be planned individually. Nutritional management in cancer treatment aims to reduce the possible side effects of the treatments and increase the patient’s quality of life.
Cancer processes affect the natural flow of life and require various adaptations. In this process, as well as some natural psychological reactions of the person, there may be accompanying psychiatric symptoms. In this course, psychopathological reactions in cancer processes and approach to individuals diagnosed with cancer will be discussed in every aspect.
Today, significant progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment methods of cancer. However, some cancer types are still not fully cured. A better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and the discovery of novel cellular mechanisms may lead to new drug targets and hence the complete cure of the disease. For this purpose, laboratory research is of great importance. For example, in vitro studies with cancer cell lines or in vivo studies with mouse cancer models constitute important pillars of translational research. In this course, state-of-the-art molecular techniques such as the CRISPR / Cas9 gene editing method or new cellular models such as chemotherapy-resistant cell lines will be emphasized. The first steps of the path from the laboratory to the clinic will be introduced with examples.
|10:00-10:50||Extracurricular Activities||Definitions, General Properties||Extracurricular Activities||Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Cancer||Extracurricular Activities|
|11:10-12:00||Definitions, General Properties||Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Cancer|
|13:00-13:50||Biology and Genetics of Cancer||Causes of Cancer, Carcinogenic Agents||Molecular Diagnosis and Treatment Methods in Nuclear Medicine||Radiological Evaluation with Current Developments in Intraabdominal Tumors|
|14:10-15:00||Biology and Genetics of Cancer||Causes of Cancer, Carcinogenic Agents||Molecular Diagnosis and Treatment Methods in Nuclear Medicine||Cancer Imaging Methods and Innovations|
|16:00-17:00||Extracurricular Activities||Extracurricular Activities||Extracurricular Activities|
|10:00-10:50||Innovations in Drug Treatment of Cancer||Extracurricular Activities||Nutrition in Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Management in Cancer Treatment||Extracurricular Activities||Extracurricular Activities|
|11:10-12:00||Innovations in Drug Treatment of Cancer||Nutrition in Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Management in Cancer Treatment|
|13:00-13:50||Recent Advances in Cancer Treatment||The Role of Radiotherapy Treatment in Cancer||Cancer and Psychiatry||Translational Cancer Research – The Path From Research Lab to Clinic|
|14:10-15:00||Recent Advances in Cancer Treatment||The Role of Radiotherapy Treatment in Cancer||Cancer and Psychiatry||Translational Cancer Research – The Path From Research Lab to Clinic|
|16:00-17:00||Extracurricular Activities||Extracurricular Activities||Extracurricular Activities|