Period 2: Chronic Diseases and Innovative Treatments

Language: Turkish Dates: 8 – 20 August 2021

Is Personalized Medicine Possible? Treatment with Vaccine or Drugs?

Advances in genetics and molecular biology have drastically changed our previous knowledge of the formation and course of complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes, in which many genetic and epigenetic factors are involved. We now know that (chronic) diseases that develop over a long period of time undergo different evolutionary transformations from patient to patient, that there is almost an evolution at the cellular level between the onset and the end of the disease, and we are looking for ways to change them with fine-tuning. While classical drugs are mostly small chemical molecules that activate or block some enzymes or intercellular signal molecules in the body, genetic engineering tools such as protein chemistry and gene editing open the door to new drugs and treatment methods that can affect cellular and metabolic processes that we could not target before. . Among these, there are "vaccine-like" immunotherapy methods that aim the immune system to find and destroy tumor cells and methods of selectively suppressing certain genes. Immunotherapy enables the immune system to perceive the tumor cell as a foreign cell by marking the tumor cells with an antigen. In this way, immune cells attack and destroy cancerous cells. Apart from cancer, such experimental vaccines can also be used in the treatment of other diseases by regulating the immune system. All of these encouraging developments are increasingly adding momentum to the idea of ​​developing “personal” medications specific to the patient. Such new drugs also require high-tech carrier systems and special medical devices in order to reach their impact sites and enter the cell. Thanks to these technologies, it has been possible to develop vaccines and to produce large quantities in a short time that has not been seen before in the Covid-19 pandemic. However, on the other hand, these treatments are inevitably too expensive for patients to afford and have the potential to place a huge burden on the healthcare system. The accessibility of all patients who need these treatment methods is undoubtedly an important goal.

S. Hakan Orer Prof. Dr. Pharmacology
Science's Battle with Atherosclerosis from the Past to the Future

One of the most important achievements of medicine in the last 50 years is the decrease in the incidence and death rates due to cardiovascular diseases all over the world. This success started with the understanding of the causes of cardiovascular diseases in the last century, and continued with the struggle with risk factors, the investigation of the diagnostic and therapeutic methods and the implementation of evidence-based management strategies to the clinical practice of physicians. In today’s societies where the life expectancy is prolonged and the elderly population is progressively increasing, not only the prolongation of the lifespan but also the improvement of the life quality, especially of the elderly people, have become imperative. In this direction, the cooperation of technology and medicine has come to the fore, and a period has emerged in which many different disciplines such as genetic scientists, medical engineers, computer engineers, electronic engineers, as well as physicians, participate in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. One of the best examples of this process is the 200 years’ war of scientists with atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases, – “hardening of the arteries” in colloquial language. Atherosclerosis, which starts from birth and progresses insidiously throughout life with the effect of genetic and environmental risk factors, is the main cause of death in adult society. Although there have been many successes in the fight against atherosclerosis, there is still a long way to go before a decisive victory. The personalized medicine approach, which includes genetic and molecular biomarkers, sensor technologies to acquire and maintain healthy living habits, artificial intelligence applications, genetic engineering and bioengineering applications that will regress formed atherosclerotic plaques, and drugs produced with new technologies, promises hope for the near future in the fight against atherosclerosis.

Dilek Ural Prof. Dr. Cardiology
In Vitro Modeling and Translational Approaches in Chronic Diseases

All diseases occur due to the disruption of the normal physiological structure and functions of the cells, tissues and organs in the body. In chronic diseases, disorders in the functioning of the cells, the extracellular matrix between the cells and the tissues and organs consisting mainly of these structures determine the disease process. The main purposes of scientific research on the effects of diseases on the human body are to define the disease, to define the pathology that causes the disease, to establish treatment methods, to prove the effectiveness of the treatment and to seek and find ways to prevent this disease from occurring. In order to achieve these goals, the effects of diseases and possible treatments are first investigated in in vitro (extracorporeal) environments. For this purpose, the behavior of healthy and sick cells in different pathological conditions, relationships between cells and changes in the molecular level in the cell are examined under laboratory conditions, for example in cell culture. Cell culture is a laboratory approach based on the growth and reproduction of cells obtained from tissues by enzymatic and mechanical means in culture containers. The effects of diseases can be demonstrated in vitro by trying to provide physiological or pathological conditions in which cells are normally found in culture media. This step is the first step in understanding the pathophysiology of diseases, and two- and three-dimensional models that mimic the disease environment allow possible treatments to be tested. The reflection of the results of this basic research that started in the laboratory environment to clinical diagnosis and treatment forms the basis of translational approaches. While it is possible to see the symptoms of a chronic disease and the course of the disease in patients, it is only possible to reveal the cause of the disease by showing the mechanisms by which normal function changes in cells. The main objective of this course is to describe the approach in basic laboratory research in different chronic diseases and to introduce the applications of the results obtained from these studies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Serçin Karahüseyinoğlu Assist. Prof. Histology and Embryology
What is the Immune System?

What is the immune system, how does it work? Immunology is an important branch of medicine and biological sciences that studies the immune system. While the immune system protects us from infections thanks to various defense mechanisms, it can cause diseases such as autoimmunity, allergies and cancer when it does not function properly. The immune system consists of many cells and molecules that work together to protect our body. In addition to developing new vaccines against microbes such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, which we call pathogens, vaccines are also developed against allergies and cancers. Vaccination, which has a more life-saving effect than many medical advances, reveals the importance of the immune system. Making safe organ transplants is one of the important areas of immunology. With the researches in the field of immunology and the development of technology, the increase in our knowledge and skills enables us to develop new diagnosis and treatment strategies against diseases, while at the same time allowing us to follow the applied treatment. Immunotherapy against cancer, which is one of the most important health problems of today, can be given as an example. Immunology is also an important field for the life sciences industry as it contributes to the development of modern antibody therapies, cellular therapies, small molecule drugs, vaccines and 'biological agents' (therapeutic biomolecules) and methods used in immunological / antibody-based diagnosis.   What is autoimmunity? What are autoimmune endocrine diseases? While the immune system protects us from foreign microbes, it distinguishes our own molecules and cells and does not harm them. Distinguishing between foreign and non-foreign is one of the basic functions of the immune system. As the immune system cells develop, those who can recognize the native and develop an immune response are tried to be removed from the middle. However, sometimes these cells can survive and respond erroneously to our own body cells and molecules. This condition is called autoimmunity and the disease that develops due to it is called autoimmune disease. For example, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune endocrine disease.

Yıldız Tütüncü Assoc. Prof Immunology
Autoimmune Neurological Diseases

In this course, clinical features of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune neurological diseases, disease mechanisms and research methods related to these diseases will be discussed.

Atay Vural Assoc. Prof. Neurology
Research Techniques in Neurology from the Laboratory to the Clinic

In this course, clinical features of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune neurological diseases, disease mechanisms and research methods related to these diseases will be discussed.

Atay Vural Assoc. Prof. Neurology
How Do Our Endocrine System and Hormones Affect Our Lives?

How do our endocrine system and hormones affect our lives? What do they cause when our pituitary gland, thyroid gland, paratrioid glands, pancreas, adrenal glands, and gonads are dysfunctional? We aim to explain to you by opening a small window to our endocrine system and supporting it with examples from our lives.

Oğuzhan Deyneli Prof. Dr. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Diabetes in Children

Although diabetes is known as a health problem of adults, it is also seen in children. In children, 95-98% of Type 1 diabetes is seen due to pancreatic beta cell damage and thus insulin deficiency. Today, it is not possible to prevent type 1 diabetes, nor to cure it. For this reason, for children with Type 1 diabetes to live healthy, it is necessary to monitor the glucose levels throughout life starting from the diagnosis and to replace the insulin hormone in the most physiological way possible. It is known that there are around 20,000 Type 1 diabetic children under the age of 18 in our country. In non-diabetic people, pancreatic beta cells monitor the blood glucose level momentarily and secrete insulin at the appropriate rate and amount accordingly. In this way, fasting glucose in humans is kept between 70-100 mg / dl and postprandial glucose between 70-140 mg. Beyond this, the entry of glucose, which is used as an energy source in our body, into the cell is also provided by the hormone insulin. In children with type 1 diabetes, these functions of beta cells should be fulfilled by their families in young children, and by family support in older children. In this course, Type 1 diabetes, which is the most common type of diabetes in children, will be explained in all aspects.

Şükrü Hatun Prof. Dr. Pediatrics Endocrinology
Imaging in Diabetes

Diabetes is a common public health problem known for high blood sugar levels. Obesity and physical inactivity, especially starting from childhood, increase the frequency of diabetes. Probably more long-term diabetes-related illnesses will be encountered in future generations. Diabetes can affect almost any organ. The high blood sugar that characterizes this disease is not clearly visible radiologically, but diseases caused by diabetes can often be detected radiologically. Vascular diseases, diseases related to nutritional disorders in the heart, stroke, soft tissue wounds in the legs and feet, joint diseases and kidney diseases can be evaluated by imaging methods. In this course, the evaluation of diabetes and diseases due to long-term diabetes by imaging methods will be explained.

Afak Durur Karakaya Assoc. Prof. Radiology
Foot Problems in Diabetes and Prevention

Diabetes is an important health problem in which blood sugar metabolism is impaired in all body systems and causes various complications in all. These complications, beyond bringing a serious health burden to individuals and their families, also create social and economic burdens affecting the entire society. Some of these problems affect the musculoskeletal system, namely our movement system. When blood sugar level is disturbed, arteries and nerves are primarily affected. When these tissues cannot function, the protective senses and nutrition of our limbs are impaired. These two conditions cause an important health problem called “diabetic foot”. A foot with impaired sensation, insufficient blood supply, and impaired healing can easily complicate with infection, non-healing wounds, gangrene, and ultimately life-threatening problems. Diabetic foot problems bring significant economic burdens on health systems at every stage and create serious social problems. The basic diabetic foot treatment approach is to ensure that no wounds are opened. For this reason, every diabetic patient should have basic knowledge of foot care and its possible problems.

İlker Eren Assoc. Prof. Orthopedics and Traumatology
Radiation and Its Use in Imaging

Radiation is the form of energy in motion and is part of nature. We can classify radiation sources as natural and artificial sources. 88% of the radiation we are exposed to consists of natural sources. The sun is the most well-known natural source of radiation. Approximately 20% of the radiation faced by the society is from artificial radiation sources. These are medical sources, radiation emitted from electromagnetic devices and radiation used in nuclear energy. Mostly, X-rays are used medically. X-rays are used in medical imaging practices, direct radiography, mammography, fluoroscopy, tomography and interventional procedures. X-rays are electromagnetic waves caused by the slowing of high energy electrons or by electron transitions in the inner orbits of atoms. Because of these properties, they form ionization and free oxygen radicals in the tissues they come into contact with. Although it often benefits the physician and the patient in routine applications in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, it can cause temporary and permanent diseases at high doses, and some results are independent of the amount of radiation received. In this course, the safe use of radiation in imaging methods will be explained.

Afak Durur Karakaya Assoc. Prof. Radiology
Common Chronic Psychiatric Diseases in Children and Adolescents and Innovative Applications and Therapy Methods in Psychiatry

According to the definition of the World Health Organization, health is not only the absence of disease and disability, but also a state of complete well-being in physical, mental and social aspects. Although physical health seems to be at the forefront in modern medicine, mental and social well-being is undoubtedly necessary for health. It is known that the age of onset of many chronic mental illnesses is in childhood and adolescence. The main ones are Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorders, Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these chronic psychiatric diseases, which are quite common in the society, are of key importance. Treatments in psychiatry are applied on a biopsychosocial basis, just as in the definition of full health. These treatment protocols also benefit from advancing technology and new developments. It continues to develop in a wide range from drug development studies to transcranial magnetic stimulation, from psychotherapy modalities integrated with virtual reality and augmented reality to artificial intelligence models.

Tuba Mutluer Asst. Prof. Psychiatry
Journey of the Drug

Drugs (medicine, medication) are natural, artificial or biologically active, containing a standard amount of active substances and licensed by authorized institutions to be used for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing and treating diseases or regulating physiological events for the benefit of the person. It is a semi-artificially prepared pure chemical substance or an equivalent mixture of vegetable or animal origin. Pharmacology is a branch of science that examines the relationship between drugs and biological systems, the effects of drugs, their mechanisms of action and their use in treatment. The drug development process is long and costly processes that take 10-15 years. The candidate drug molecule's journey, which started with pre-clinical studies, continues with randomized clinical trials (phase-I, II, III, IV clinical trials) in humans. All data are evaluated by the authorized health authorities and if they find the efficacy and safety appropriate, they are licensed and approved and made available for human health. Perhaps the journey of the drug actually begins at this point in real life: Both pharmacoepidemiological studies, that is, the use, efficacy and safety (side effects) of drugs that have been approved by health authorities and put into use for human health will be based on the principles of rational drug use and cost-effective use on large populations. Thus, the journey of the drug in the real life continues with the researches carried out in a way to target the improvement of health-related outcomes, as well as pharmacovigilance applications, that is, scientific studies and activities aimed at identifying, evaluating, understanding and preventing drug side effects and drug-related problems. With rational drug use (RUM) practices, it is tried to be provided, presented and used by drug providers and patients in "good quality", that is, in an appropriate, proper and treatment-compatible manner. Thus, the elimination of excessive or less use of drugs and the patient's non-compliance with treatment, and the use of the drug at an appropriate cost both on an individual and social scale in terms of the sustainability of the treatment is tried to be provided.

Sinem Ezgi Gülmez Prof. Dr. Pharmacology

Course Schedule

1. Week
09-Aug 10-Aug 11-Aug 12-Aug 13-Aug
10:00-10:50 Course 1 (will be announced soon) Extracurricular Activities In Vitro Modeling and Translational Approaches in Chronic Diseases Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities
10:50-11:10 Break Break
11:10-12:00 Course 1 (will be announced soon) In Vitro Modeling and Translational Approaches in Chronic Diseases
12:00-13:00 Break Break
13:00-13:50 Is Personalized Medicine Possible? Treatment with Vaccine or Drugs? Science's Battle with Atherosclerosis from the Past to the Future What is the Immune System? Autoimmune Neurological Diseases and Research Techniques in Neurology from the Laboratory to the Clinic
13:50-14:10 Break Break Break Break
14:10-15:00 Is Personalized Medicine Possible? Treatment with Vaccine or Drugs? Science's Battle with Atherosclerosis from the Past to the Future What is the Immune System? Autoimmune Neurological Diseases and Research Techniques in Neurology from the Laboratory to the Clinic
15:00-16:00 Break Break Break Break
16:00-17:00 Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities
2. Week
16-Aug 17-Aug 18-Aug 19-Aug 20-Aug
10:00-10:50 How Do Our Endocrine System and Hormones Affect Our Lives? Extracurricular Activities Radiation and Its Use in Imaging Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities
10:50-11:10 Break Break
11:10-12:00 How Do Our Endocrine System and Hormones Affect Our Lives? Radiation and Its Use in Imaging
12:00-13:00 Break Break
13:00-13:50 Diabetes in Children Musculoskeletal Problems in Diabetes and Prevention Common Chronic Psychiatric Diseases in Children and Adolescents and Innovative Applications and Therapy Methods in Psychiatry Journey of the Drug
13:50-14:10 Break Break Break Break
14:10-15:00 Obesity Imaging in Diabetes Musculoskeletal Problems in Diabetes and Prevention Common Chronic Psychiatric Diseases in Children and Adolescents and Innovative Applications and Therapy Methods in Psychiatry Journey of the Drug
15:00-16:00 Break Break Break Break
16:00-17:00 Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities
Please note that this schedule is subject to changes.