Series of seminars in Medicine. The aim is to expose our participants to medical concepts and to the scientific basis of medicine.
You will meet with one of our faculty members from a different field of expertise in Medicine for each seminar.
Cancer is a genetic disease of cells characterized by abnormal proliferation, insensitivity to growth factors, loss of adhesion to other cells and tissues, ability to escape immune system regulation and potential to invade normal tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body. There are many external agents which cause cells to transform into cancer cells. The mechanisms of transformation of cells by certain carcinogenic chemicals, radiation and biological agents are now elucidated. In addition, cellular targets of these agents and mechanisms by which cells repair these actions are now being studied. In this lecture, we will discuss these carcinogenic agents and their interactions with cells, molecular mechanisms of carcinogenic process and clinical implications of these cellular events.
Urologic cancers include prostate cancers, kidney cancers, urinary bladder cancers, testis cancers and adrenal gland tumors. Among those, testis cancers are seen in a younger male population and remaining cancers are seen in the middle aged or older patients.
Like in all cancers, early diagnosis is very important in the successful treatment of the urologic cancers. Due to the recent developments particularly in radiologic imaging methods such as ultrasound (USG), computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), currently most urologic cancers are detected at an early stage when the tumor is small in size. If we are able to identify a urologic tumor at an early stage, it is possible to surgically remove the tumor. As an example, a small tumor in the kidney can be removed surgically and rest of the kidney tissue without tumor can be saved.
In the past, we were performing classical open surgery in the treatment of urologic cancers. However, due to the recent technological developments in the field of surgical instruments and technology, we are currently using robotic technology in the treatment of prostate cancer, kidney cancer, urinary bladder cancer, testis cancer and adrenal gland tumors. In this technology, the surgeon uses the surgical robot in a sitting position, controls the arms of the robot that is connected to the patient’s body. The In the past, we were performing classical open surgery in the treatment of urologic cancers. However, due to the recent technological developments in the field of surgical instruments and technology, we are currently using robotic technology in the treatment of prostate cancer, kidney cancer, urinary bladder cancer, testis cancer and adrenal gland tumors. In this technology, the surgeon uses the surgical robot in a sitting position, controls the arms of the robot that is connected to the patient’s body. The robotic camera has a magnified and 3-dimensonal view that shows the details of the anatomy and the tumor. The advantages of robotic surgery includes decreased bleeding, decreased blood transfusion requirement after the surgery, decreased duration of hospital stay, faster healing, decreased complications and better outcomes.
Recently, tumor navigated surgery has become more attractive that is used as a guide for the surgeon. At Koç University Hospital, we managed to develop 3D virtual reality reconstructed images obtained from CT and MRI images of the patients and incorporated them to Da Vinci robotic surgical system. Therefore, robotic surgeon can follow these images on the screen while operating the patient and uses there images as a guide during robotic surgery. This idea aims to remove the organ with cancer safer and with clear margins that might mean increase cancer-free rate following robotic surgery (This project received 3rd Best Poster Study Award during European Association of Urology Robotic Section Congress that was held in Lisbon, Portugal).
Like in every surgery, a proper training and knowledge is required in order to perform robotic surgery. The young generation is very much interested in technology and robotics and it is expected that we will have very successful and well-trained young robotic surgeons in the future.
Apoptosis is programmed cell death observed in all multicellular organisms. Apoptosis is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis through elimination of damaged, infected or aged cells. The decision to undergo apoptosis is made based on the cells’ interpretation of environmental stimuli or their self-assessment of cellular damage. Apoptosis tightly regulates cancer formation as well as response of cancer cells to currently available treatment strategies such as chemotherapy, irradiation or immunotherapy. However, most cancer cells possess an intrinsic resistance to apoptosis and find alternative strategies to evade cell death. In this lecture, we will review the molecular mechanisms behind apoptosis evasion in cancers and discuss how these mechanisms can be rewired to lead cancer cells to die.
Histology is the study of the microscopic structure of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. The subject of histology also concerns the body’s function and has a direct relationship to other disciplines including cell biology, embryology, physiology, gross anatomy, biochemistry, and pathology. In this lecture, the diverse methods used by histologists to study the microscopic anatomy of the body will be outlined. Besides, as a typical example of the application of histologic approach in scientific research, the use of microscopic techniques in understanding the functional and structural characteristics of the blood-brain barrier will be discussed.
A new virus infection started from China in late 2019 and quickly became a pandemic, spreading to almost all continents of the world. To this date the virus infected more than a million people and killed several hundred thousand. By now the structure and molecular biology of the virus is well described and extensive studies to develop treatment and/or an effective vaccine are being carried in many laboratories throughout the world. Unfortunately no effective treatment has been found and development of a vaccine is going to take months at best.
In this lecture we will describe how epidemics such as this has appeared in the history, how they are studied with modern techniques and how they can be monitored, contained and treated with new methods.
This lecture on hemostasis will describe the mechanisms that are involved in the arrest of blood flow from a damaged vessel. Further I will talk about the contributions of local constriction of blood vessels, platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade. Then I will discuss the process of forming clots in walls of damaged blood vessels and preventing blood loss while maintaining blood in a fluid state within the vascular system.